Egyptian Genie

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Egyptian Genie

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Entsprechend ist eine Definition anhand des IQ fragwürdig und geht am Wesen des Genies vorbei, da unter einem Genie gewöhnlich jemand verstanden wird, der überragende Leistungen tatsächlich erbracht hat, während der Intelligenzquotient nur die Kapazität zur Erbringung dieser Leistung angibt.

In der Konsequenz unterscheidet man auch zwischen Genie und Talent. Wilhelm Lange-Eichbaum wies bereits früh darauf hin, dass es einer Verehrergemeinde bedarf, die eine Hochleistung zu der Leistung eines Genies erklärt: Insbesondere ist aber nachhaltiger Einfluss des Werkes eine Voraussetzung.

In der englischen Fachliteratur wird die aus der herausragenden Leistung resultierende Auswirkung auf zeitgenössische und nachfolgende Generationen oft mit eminence bezeichnet.

Eine wörtliche Übersetzung wäre etwa "Herausragend-heit". In einer Studie, die die Eminence von herausragenden Künstlern bewertete, die zwischen den Jahren und geborenen wurden, rangierte Michelangelo auf Platz 1.

Problematisch ist jedoch, dass wie bei verkannten Genies zwischen einer Leistung und ihrer Anerkennung erhebliche Zeit vergehen kann, z.

Auch wenn die Anerkennung bereits zu Lebzeiten stattfindet, unterliegt sie einem zeitlichen Wandel. Ein anderes Konzept des Genies baut zwar auch auf dem herausragenden Werk auf, setzt aber die Anforderungen höher.

Eine Möglichkeit Aspekte von Intelligenz mit Genialität in Verbindung zu bringen, besteht darin, weniger von einer Bedeutung der allgemeinen Intelligenz für herausragende Leistungen auszugehen, sondern von einer hohen Bedeutung einzelner kognitiver Fähigkeiten, die je nach Tätigkeitsfeld andere sind und bei Genies überragend wären.

Hypothetisch wären damit Ergebnisse von Genies bei einem IQ-Test, der die allgemeine Intelligenz beurteilen sollte, wahrscheinlich nicht überragend gewesen.

Beispielsweise würde man Mozart eine niedrige Intelligenz zuordnen, wenn er anhand seiner mathematischen Leistung beurteilt worden wäre.

Genauso würde man Pascal einen niedrigen IQ-Wert unterstellen, wenn man ihn auf Grund seiner musikalischen Fähigkeiten bewertet hätte. Seine allgemeine Intelligenz ist nur überdurchschnittlich, während einzelne kognitive Fähigkeiten überragend sind.

Eine beharrliche Motivation und Offenheit für Erfahrungen sind die beiden Persönlichkeitsmerkmale , die sich durchgängig über unterschiedliche Tätigkeitsfelder Wissenschaft, Kunst … hinweg als wichtig für den Geniestatus herausgestellt haben.

Die Bedeutung anderer Persönlichkeitsmerkmale unterscheidet sich sehr je nach Tätigkeitsfeld. Tatsächlich ist im Vergleich zwischen Genies nicht nur die Variabilität der Lebensleistung erheblich -- so neigen die produktivsten Genies dazu, mindestens mal mehr Werke zu produzieren als die am wenigsten produktiven --, auch die Häufigkeitsverteilung der Produktivität ist bei weitem nicht normal, sondern extrem rechtsschief verteilt.

Im ausgehenden Dieser Ansatz wird weniger radikal auch von Lange-Eichbaum, dem bekanntesten Genietheoretiker, vertreten.

Umfangreich sind also die Arbeiten zwischen Genialität und psychischer Störung. Der das Genie überfallende Schaffensdrang wird in der Philosophie verglichen mit bestimmten originellen und gedanklich hochproduktiven Phasen aus den leichteren psychopathologischen Randgebieten hypomanische Phasenschwankungen , visionäre Vorstadien von Schizophrenie.

One theory is that Serpopards represented the chaos and barbarism lurking beyond the borders of Egypt during the pre-dynastic period over 5, years ago , but since these chimeras also feature in Mesopotamian art from the same time span, in pairs with necks entwined, they may also have served as symbols of vitality or masculinity.

Sphinxes aren't exclusively Egyptian — depictions of these human-headed, lion-bodied beasts have been discovered as far afield as Turkey and Greece — but the Great Sphinx of Giza , in Egypt, is by far the most famous member of the breed.

Other than that, though, all sphinxes serve pretty much the same function: to zealously guard treasures or repositories of wisdom and not allow travelers to pass unless they can solve a clever riddle.

Not to be confused with the demon snake Apep, Uraeus is a rearing cobra symbolizing the majesty of the Egyptian pharaohs.

The origins of this figure hark back to Egyptian prehistory — during the pre- dynastic period , Uraeus was associated with the now-obscure goddess Wadjet, who presided over the fertility of the Nile Delta and lower Egypt.

Around the same time, a similar function was performed in upper Egypt by the even more obscure goddess Nekhbet, often depicted as a white vulture.

When upper and lower Egypt were unified around 3, B. Share Flipboard Email. Bob Strauss. Science Writer. Jinn are not a strictly Islamic concept; they may represent several pagan beliefs integrated into Islam.

In an Islamic context, the term jinn is used for both a collective designation for any supernatural creature and also to refer to a specific type of supernatural creature.

Both devils and jinn feature in folklore and are held responsible for misfortune, possession and diseases. However, the jinn are sometimes supportive and benevolent.

They are mentioned frequently in magical works throughout the Islamic world, to be summoned and bound to a sorcerer, but also in zoological treatises as animals with a subtle body.

Some authors interpret the word to mean, literally, "beings that are concealed from the senses". The origin of the word jinn remains uncertain.

Others claim a Persian origin of the word, in the form of the Avestic "Jaini", a wicked female spirit. Jaini were among various creatures in the possibly even pre-Zoroastrian mythology of peoples of Iran.

It first appeared [14] in 18th-century translations of the Thousand and One Nights from the French, [15] where it had been used owing to its rough similarity in sound and sense and further applies to benevolent intermediary spirits, in contrast to the malevolent spirits called demon and heavenly angels , in literature.

The exact origins of belief in jinn are not entirely clear. But although their mortality ranks them lower than gods, it seems veneration of jinn had played more importance in the everyday life of pre-Islamic Arabs than the gods themselves.

According to common Arabian belief, soothsayers , pre-Islamic philosophers, and poets were inspired by the jinn. Although the powers of jinn exceed those of humans, it is conceivable a man could kill a jinni in single combat.

Jinn were thought to shift into different shapes, but were feared especially in their invisible form, since when they could attack without being seen.

On the other hand, Amira El-Zein argues that angels were known to the pagan Arabs, but the term jinn was used for all kinds of supernatural entities among various religions and cults; thus, Zoroastrian , Christian, and Jewish angels and demons were conflated with "jinn".

They also thought jinn could protect, marry, kidnap, possess and kill people. Jinn are mentioned approximately 29 times in the Quran.

Solomon was gifted by God to talk to animals and spirits. God granted him authority over the rebellious jinn and devils forcing them to build the First Temple.

In other instances, the Quran tells about Pagan Arabs, calling jinn for help, instead of God. The Quran reduced the status of jinn from that of tutelary deities to that of minor spirits, usually paralleling humans.

To assert a strict monotheism and the Islamic concept of Tauhid , all affinities between the jinn and God were denied, thus jinn were placed parallel to humans, also subject to God's judgment and afterlife.

They are also mentioned in collections of canonical hadiths. One hadith divides them into three groups, with one type flying through the air; another that are snakes and dogs; and a third that moves from place to place like human.

Belief in jinn is not included among the six articles of Islamic faith , as belief in angels is, however at least many Muslim scholars believe it essential to the Islamic faith.

Related to common traditions, the angels were created on Wednesday, the jinn on Thursday and humans on Friday, but not the very next day, rather more than years later, respectively.

Consequently, God sent his angels to battle the infidel jinn. Just a few survived, and were ousted to far islands or to the mountains.

With the revelation of Islam, the jinn were given a new chance to access salvation. However, since Tabari is one of the earliest commentators, the several jinn have been known.

Although the Quran reduced the status of jinn from that of tutelary deities to merely spirits, placed parallel to humans, subject to God's judgment and the process of life, death and afterlife, they were not consequently equated with demons.

Early Persian translations of the Quran identified the jinn either with peris or divs [31] depending on their moral behavior. However, such identifications of jinn with spirits of another culture are not universal.

Some of the pre-Islamic spirits remained. Peris and divs are frequently attested as distinct from jinn among Muslim lore, [50] but since both div as well as jinn are associated with demonic and the ability to transform themselves, they overlap sometimes.

Especially Morocco has many possession traditions, including exorcism rituals , [52] despite the fact, jinn's ability to possess humans is not mentioned in canonical Islamic scriptures directly.

Feelings of insecurity, mental instability, unhappy love and depression being "tired from the soul" are forms of dha'iyfah. In Artas Bethlemhem oral beliefs, the jinn form societies beneath the ground.

Envying humans, they frequently ascend to the surface, causing sickness to children, snatching food and taking revenge when humans mistreat them.

Some jinn are nevertheless benevolent towards humans, teaching humans a moral lesson. In Sindh the concept of the jinni was introduced when Islam became acceptable and "Jinn" has become a common part of local folklore, also including stories of both male jinn called " jinn " and female jinn called " Jiniri ".

Folk stories of female jinn include stories such as the Jejhal Jiniri. Although, due to the cultural influence, the concept of jinn may vary, all share some common features.

The jinn are believed to live in societies resembling those of humans, practicing religion including Islam, Christianity and Judaism , having emotions, needing to eat and drink, and can procreate and raise families.

Additionally, they fear iron, generally appear in desolate or abandoned places, and are stronger and faster than humans. In Mughal or Urdu cultures Jinn often appear to be obese characters and refer to their masters as "Aqa".

In later Albanian lore , jinn Xhindi live either on earth or under the surface and may possess people who have insulted them, for example if their children are trodden upon or hot water thrown on them.

The concept of Jinn was also prevalent in Ottoman society and much about their beliefs is yet to be known.

In Turkic lore , jinn Turkish : Cin are often paired with in , another demonic entity, sharing many characteristics with the jinn.

The composition and existence of jinn is the subject of various debates during the Middle Ages. If they were composed of the latter, they would be visible to any human with functional eyes.

Since they are mentioned in Islamic texts, scholars such as Ibn Taimiyya and Ibn Hazm prohibit the denial of jinn. They also refer to spirits and demons among the Christians, Zoroastrians and Jews to "prove" their existence.

He held that the jinn account for much of the "magic" that is perceived by humans, cooperating with magicians to lift items in the air, delivering hidden truths to fortune tellers, and mimicking the voices of deceased humans during seances.

Other critics, such as Jahiz and Mas'udi , related sightings of jinn to psychological causes. According to Mas'udi, the jinn as described by traditional scholars, are not a priori false, but improbable.

If he is afraid, he may see things that are not real. These alleged appearances are told to other generations in bedtime stories and poems, and with children of the next generation growing up with such stories, when they are afraid or lonely, they remember these stories, encouraging their imaginations and causing another alleged sighting of jinn.

However, Jahiz is less critical about jinn and demons than Mas'udi, stating human fantasy at least encourage people to imagine such creatures.

They differ from the angels, which due to their closeness to heaven reflect the spheres of the divine, mainly in their distance to the earth and the heavens, stating: "Only this much is different: The spirits of the jinn are lower spirits, while the spirits of angels are heavenly spirits".

Because jinn are closer to the material realm, it would be easier for human to contact a jinn, than an angel. Ahmadi interpret jinn not as supernatural beings, but as powerful men whose influence is felt even though they keep their distance from the common people.

According to Mirza Tahir Ahmad , references to jinn could also mean microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses.

Fethullah Gülen , leader of Hizmet movement , had put forward the idea, that jinn may be the cause of schizophrenia and cancer and that the Quranic references to jinn on "smokeless fire" could for that matter mean "energy".

Contemporary Salafi tenets of Islam reject modern interpretations of jinn and adhere to literalism , arguing the threat of jinn and their ability to possess humans can be proven by Quran and Sunnah.

Fatwas issued by Salafi scholars often repeatedly refer to a selection of Quran verses and hadith quotes, without reference to certain traditions and individual experience.

Some argue that many traditions and beliefs among Muslims are excluded from Salafi theological discourse and downplays embedded Muslim beliefs as local lore, such as symptoms of jinn possession.

The opinions of the prominent Saudi Muslim lecturer Muhammad Al-Munajjid , an important scholar in Salafism and founder of IslamQA , are repeated over several online sources, and is also cited by IslamOnline and Islamicity.

Similar Islamawareness. Further Muhammad Al-Munajjid, asserts that reciting various Quranic verses and adhkaar devotional acts involving the repetition of short sentences glorifying God "prescribed in Sharia Islamic law " can protect against jinn, [60] associating Islamic healing rituals common across Islamic culture with shirk polytheism.

Affirmation on the existence of jinn as sapient creatures living along with humans is still widespread in the Middle Eastern world and mental illnesses are still often attributed to jinn possession.

The low rate in Central Asia might be influenced by Soviet religious oppression. Sleep paralysis is conceptualized as a "Jinn attack" by many sleep paralysis sufferers in Egypt as discovered by Cambridge neuroscientist Baland Jalal.

Both Islamic and non-Islamic scholarship generally distinguishes between angels , jinn and demons as three different types of spiritual entities in Islamic traditions.

Especially in folklore , jinn share many characteristics usually associated with demons, as both are held responsible for mental illness, diseases and possession.

However, such traits do not appear within the Quran or canonical hadiths.

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Egyptian Genie Video

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Egyptian Genie Video

Magical Desert Music – Lamp of Wishes - Arabian, Egyptian, Enchanted

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